Grabungskampagne 2007

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Kamid el-Loz 2007


I. Scientific Aims of the Season 2007 


East Slope

Our scientific interest in the East Slope excavation 2007 focused on gaining more detailed chronological information to establish the settlement and site history. We further collected additional data necessary for reconstructing the activities and functions that have taken place in this area from the Hellenistic period to the Late Bronze Age. The research in the areas II-e-5/6 (II-d-6) on the western part of the East Slope initially focused on the already known Iron Age house (house number 1) with its at least two building phases. The aim of the season was to retrace the entire house plan as well as to explore the activities carried out in the house and its immediate surrounding. A deep sounding within the house wasaccomplished to examine the former settlement of this area. As known from the previous excavations we had to expect further graves of the Hellenistic- and Persian-times cemetery, which both extended at least from II-e-6 to II-e-7. In this context the layout of the cemetery was of special interest. Therefore we examined the orientation of the single graves, the grave types and the funeral manners as well as the chronology of this cemetery. 

In the eastern part of the slope, in area II-e-7 (II-d-7), our main goal was to reconstruct the layout and stratigraphy of house 2. The examination of the Persian-Hellenistic cemetery and of the settlement sequence of this part of the slope and its connection with II-e-5-6 were the further ventures in this area in 2007.
In both areas, II-e-6 and II-e-7, the excavations were extended to the north and even expanded to the southern parts of the areas II d 6 and II d 7. Furthermore, area II-e-6 was opened to the west into II-e-5. In both areas (II-e-6 and II-e-7) a deep trench has been opened to reach the next older settlement layers underneath the Iron Age (II-e-6) resp. the Late Bronze Age house (II-e-7) Thus, it is now possible to set up a chrono-stratigraphical sequence of the East Slope from the post-Roman times to the Late Bronze Age. 


The aim of our work in the Palace Area had originally been to collect more information about the developing history and process of the Hellenistic, Iron Age and Late Bronze Age settlement activities so far explored in the areas III-a-12,13,14 and 15. A second major venture was planned with the opening of a trench - 10m long and 4m wide, aligned south - north in area I-i-14 and I-i-15 to explore the Late Bronze Age structures as well as the older building-levels of the Palace.
During the preparation and cleaning of the alloted areas, massive stone walls and clay-brick structures appeared. These unexpected and monumental features convinced us - after thorough and due considerations - to modify the program 2007. The examination of the "red layer" in III-a-15, i.e. the exploration of the western part of III-a-15 to III-a-12 that had just started (as planned according to our concept in 2005) have been postponed. Instead we opened the areas III-a-15, III-a-16 and I-i-15 / I-i-16, (i.e. the space of the Late Bronze Age Palace). Before opening area III-a-16 we safeguarded the east-section of this area to avoid the collapse of the modern cemetery wall bordering these trenches. Our scientific interest in exploring the south-north trench as well as our newly opened areas concentrated mainly on grasping the building history, on aquiring the functions of the so called Palace and on detecting the activities, that had taken place in this building.


Temple Area

In the Temple Area the analysis of the next older building layer had been planned within controlled sondages. Between areas I-g-12 and I-g-14 a new area should be opened to clarify the building history of the Temple itself, i.e. to uncover - here as in the dwelling houses - the next older building levels. Both activities aimed at reaching the Middle Bronze Age structures. A third venture embraced the exploration of the northern edge of the tell. Our former excavations had left the impression, that the northern part of the settlement had either been neglected or even being abandoned during the Late Bronze Age. As in the other domains described above our scientific interest focused here both on questions concerning the history of the area, questions concerning the activities carried out in the immediate surrounding of the Temple and on questions dealing with the layout of Late and Middle Bronze Age villages and cities.

II. Excavation Areas 

1. Description of Accomplished Activities 

1.1  The "East Slope Area" - western part II-e-5; II-e-6, II-d-6 (plates I, II)

The Iron Age I  settlement, house no. 1 (plate II)

The enlargement of area II-e-6 to the north and the opening of the area to the west (II-e-5) led to the reconstruction of further details of the residential house (house No. 1) that had been seized here in 2002/5. The existence of at least 4 rooms resp. courtyards has been grasped with the excavation of walls w1a, w3 and w4. W1a and w4 build the northern edge of a courtyard, which was layed out with an irregular set stone-ensemble and covered with ashes. Underneath this feature a greyish trodden floor has been excavated. On this floor one tannour has been placed near w 1a.
The walls were built of stones of different size, the larger ones partly hewn and formed. The upper layer of the stones had been partly covered with a clay-roughcast, serving as a mortar. The upper structure of the walls had probably been built of brick - as the many brick fragments, found in the rubble of the courtyards/rooms, indicate. The house itself has burned down and was covered with a thick ash layer. According to the pottery the house belonged to the earliest phase of the Iron Age settlement of Kamid el-Loz. Tannour and pottery of the courtyard-area east of w1a further indicated household activities in this area.

Evidence for an Iron Age III context (Persian-period) 

Although the Iron Age I settlement seems to have been - at least partly - given up, the area excavated in 2007 showed traces of a later use. A tannour surrounded by Iron-Age-III sherds indicated the supposed later Iron-Age-III use. The Persian period thus has not only been documented through the graves, but in 2007 also with the help of the pottery and the settlement reference.
As far as it can been seen, the Iron Age III settlement consisted of two building phases1. In both phases the already decayed Iron Age I structures (so called house 1 ) were still in use. In the younger phase, mostly consisting of the walls w1a, w2, w1b, three tannours indicate an utilisation of this area for household acitivities. This assumption has been affirmed by large amounts of household pottery and a large runner stone. Furthermore an inscense burner has been recovered. This remarkable piece was endued with a cupola roof, little windows and a circular ledge, on which several little figurines had been attached. This find suggests, that - beside of the domestic acitivities - ritual action, most propably in a private matter, had taken place in this area. However, constitution and dimension of this cultic activities remain unknown at the moment.
The structures were destroyed by a fire, leaving behind a large destruction layer with ashes, charcoal, large amounts of burned pottery and mud brick fragments.
The anteceding Persian phase consisted of the walls w3, w4, w2 und w1a/b of the older house 1. The findings here are considerably fewer than in the later usage, indicating that both phases succeeded each other immediately.

The cemetery  (plate III and IV)

Six burials excavated in area II-e-6 and three burials ex-cavated in area II-e-5 are of Hellenistic and post-Hellenistic date. As in the years before it was nearly impossible to trace the outlines of the grave pits. The dead had been entombed lying on their back and usually buried without grave goods - only one burial contained a bracelet. 4 burials had been aligned south-east / north-west, 3 burials north-west / south-east and only one burial south-north. In addition to the simple body-graves two pot-graves (grave no. II-e-6/06/2007 and grave no. II-e-5/03/2007) had been added to this cemetery. Grave no. II-e-6/06/2007 was preserved in an excellent condition. Three large storage vessels (amphoras) had been interlocked and enclosed the body of the juvenile deceased. In contrast, the pottery of grave no. II-e-5/03/2007 was poorly preserved. Only the skull had been covered by the lower parts of a vessel with a flat bottom. Scattered sherds covered and surrounded the skeleton.
The storage vessels of grave II-e-6/06/2007 clearly refer to a dating into the Hellenistic period.

The deep trench  (plate V)

East and west of wall w6b a small deep trench had been opened to answer our questions concerning the chronology and the stratigraphy of the East Slope. Underneath the Iron Age settlement we found clear evidence for the next older settlements. W6b, so far the youngest evidence for building activities during the Late Bronze Age in this field, had been built on top of the older construction, represented by wall w9 in the east part of the trench. W9 was accompanied by two storage vessels and, above all, by pottery that corresponds very clearly to the Palace - pottery of phase P4. Underneath wall w9 the next layer appeared, a stone-brick-construction again found together with Late Bronze Age pottery.
In the western part of the sondage a further wall, running nw-se, w7, occurred, according to the pottery of Late Bronze Age date, but up to date not yet correlated to the eastern part of the trench. In the south, wall w7 builds a corner with wall w8, the latter running from west to east and so far only excavated in a small part. For the East Slope the preliminary results concerning the building history are the following: at least three building levels existed during the Late Bronze Age.
As a surprise among the results of the East Slope 2007 and most interesting concerning our questions that deal with the functions of this part of the Late Bronze Age settlement - came the identification of the pottery here with the pottery from the Palace.

1.2  The "East Slope Area" - eastern part II-e-7, II-d-7  (plates I, II)

The Late Bronze settlement, house no. 2  (plate VI)

The excavation of several walls excavated 2007 revealed the ground-plan of house 2 and made it possible to reconstruct the building history of this part of the settlement. The house, build of the walls w10-19, consisted - as hitherto known - of 2 rooms, one small segregated courtyard, as well as of the surrounding open space, used for domestic activities. 3 tannours, excavated in 2007 and belonging to house 2 indicate here (as well as in the house-1-area) household activities. The tannours were placed next to walls, i.e. tannour 1 close to wall w10a (2005), tannour 2 north of wall w18. Tannour 3 had been separated from the outside courtyard by wall w13, the latter obviously built to protect those working on the tannour from wind and whirled up ashes.
Around this tannour a remarkable amount of animal bones and fragments of obviously large pots further hint to household activities in this part of the settlement. A larger amount of animal bones was also found in room 1. While cleaning the northern part of area II-e-7, several fragments of metal occured. The original form and function of these fragments can only be defined after professional cleaning of the objects. While clearing away the floors in house 2, Late Bronze Age pottery has been found in every part of the house, indicating the founding of house 2 during this period.
This Late Bronze Age house has been mutilated by a Roman building, the dating suggested by the pottery and the glass finds in its immediate surrounding. The walls wVII and wVIII, intruding the Late Bronze dwelling, belong to a Roman building in the direct vicinity of the large Roman house II (see BAAL 8, 2004, 86 ff.) Further excavations have to clarify the whole ground-plan as well as the exact chronological position of this house.

The cemetery 

In area II-e-7 eleven burials enlarged the Persian and Hellenistic cemetery to the east. The preservation of the graves in this part of the East Slope differed from excellent to very fragmentary. As in area II-e-6 the orientation was not homogenous. Moreover, some burials gave the impression of being "bone-pits" rather than regular set burials (graves II-e-7/4/07, II-e-7/5/07, II-e-7/8/07 and II-e-7/9/07). As in area II-e-6 few grave goods had been given to the dead, amongst others pearls and earrings. The chronological determination of the graves as Persian / and - or Hellenistic again followed mainly stratigraphical observations.

The deep trench  (plates II and VI)

Between wall w12 and w10b a further deep trench had been opened. As in II-e-6 clear evidence for a settlement older than Iron Age occured. The deep trench provided the oldest Late Bronze Age remains so far reached in area II-e-7. The context consisted of a heavy burnt layer, a floor and a tannour. Furthermore, we can clearly demonstrate that also in this area pottery came to light that corresponds well with the Palace P 4 assemblages (as in the deep trench of area II-e-6).

1.3 The Palace Area - III-a-15, III-a-16; I-i-15, I-i-16 

Wall-structures and building units  (plates VIIVIIIIXXXIXIIXIII2
At present, three "building units" may be separated in the so called Palace Area:
Unit 1
In the east of the area, captured through a deep trench, lies the massive wall w 1, in its southern part already excavated during the former seasons. Two large stone settings branch off to the west: in its southern part, wall w 4, and further to the north w 3. From wall w 3 stretches a smaller stone-setting, (wall) w 5 to the north, which, in the course of our work, turned out to be the continuation of wall w 1. At its northern end this wall /w 5 = w 1 is connected to wall w 2, the latter stretching to the east, joining wall w 14 (see plate VII). All these walls are built out of stone, rarely roughly cut, probably all topped with mudbrick superstructures as the amount of brick fragments in this area suggests.
Unit 2
The second major construction runs parallel and east to wall w 1. It consists of a major stone wall w 6, running south-north, partly still maintained with its brick super-structure in situ. In its southern part the wall bends to the east, wall w 6a, here also still covered with its brick super-structure. Wall w 6a can be followed in two directions. It runs east, representing there the northern wall of the deflagrated storeroom (see below) and bends as well into south-north direction, there denominated as wall w 6b. In its southern part wall w 6b is connected to wall w 7. W 7 runs east-west, is built of a stone foundation and a brick-superstructure and kept in an excellent condition.
Unit 3
"Building unit" three consists of walls w 8 and w 9, w 11, w 12, w 13. The major stone wall w 8 runs in north-south direction. W 11 forms the southern end of w 8 and bends to the east, w 12 bends to the west. Linked up with walls w 11 /12 as well as with wall w 8 is wall w 13, running northwest - southeast. W 13 is built with stones far larger than those of the walls w 8, 9, 11 and 12.
Older than the main structures of building unit 3 is the wall w 15, running north / south.
Wall w 14 of building unit 1 runs north-south and seems to form the eastern limitation of unit 1. The functional interpretation of wall w 14 could also sound different: it might possibly build the connection to unit 3, if, as we have to check 2008 - it joins wall w 12. In this case the stratigraphical - and chronological interpretation - of unit 1 and unit 3 would alike have to be changed: both would build a contemporary used structure.
The chronological relationship between unit 1 and 3 would again look different, if wall w 14 of unit 1 overbuilds wall w 12 of unit 3 - a possibility that has also to be checked in 2008.

Description of the brick-structure  (plate XI)

A huge mudbrick pile is located between building unit 2 and 3, demonstrating the collapse of one or more massive brick-walls in this area. The bricks lay underneath! wall w 14. I.e., after the collapse of the brick-complex, which belongs to unit 2 and is thus older than building units 1 and 3, wall w 14 of unit 1 overbuild unit 2!

Description of rooms and installations  (plates IXXXIIXIII)

Northern part of building unit 3
In the northern part of building unit 3, northwest of wall w 8, a circle of stones has been erected, preserved up to ca. 0,50m, its function up to date unknown.
Between the walls w 8 - w 11 several ovens (tannour) had been build on two different levels, i.e. they represent two different building phases (plate XII).
Southern part of building unit 2
In the southern part of building unit 2 a burned storage room has been exposed. Storage vessels, broken through the collapse of burned bricks (belonging to the above mentioned brick pile still in situ) into the room have been preserved, as well as the clay build hollows for keeping these vessels in an upright position. 
The storage room is older than unit 2, according to the pottery analysis Middle Bronze, e.i. the storage room represents an anteceding structure of unit 2 (plate IXXII).

Western part of building unit 2
After wall w 6 in building unit 2 had been omitted, an oven had been erected on top of it (plate XIII).


The deep trench in area III-a-15  (plate VII)

North of wall w 4 and west of wall w 1 a deep trench had been opened for examining the stratigraphical and chronological situation in the Palace Area. Below the stone floor excavated in the season 2005 two further floor levels have be exposed, followed by a layer of ashes and clay, according to the pottery all still of Late Bronze Age date.

Stratigraphical and chronological assessment 

Building unit 1 in the west and building unit 3 in the east are both younger than building unit 2 in between. For the moment being it seems that the construction of unit 1 and unit 3 could have either been connected, i.e. they were used (if not build) at the same time - unless unit 1 overbuilds not only unit 2 but also unit 3 (see above).
The pile of mud-bricks (some of them secondarily burnt) laying east of wall w 6 belonged to the destruction - layer of building unit 2. Some of the bricks overlaid wall 6 a / b and at the same time were connected to the pile of bricks. Unit 2 and the stone floor north of wall w 4 and west of wall w 1 might belong (according to the nivellements) to one building.

Functions - first suggestions 

All three building units occupy the so called "Palace Area". The team of the University of Saarbrücken excavated, under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Mansfeld, 4 phases of the Palace, Palace 1-4, P4 the oldest construction so far seized.
The correlation between the results of the University of Saarbrücken and the results of the 2007 season is currently taking place. Preliminary considerations concerning the chronological position of the new results can already be given.
According to the pottery the building-structures of unit 1 and unit 3 are of Late Bronze Age date, both belong at least temporarily to the phase Palace P 4.
Entirely new results concerning the building history of this area have been acquired by the excavation of the predecessor of building unit 2. For the first time substantial building evidence has been captured for the Middle Bronze Age period in the Palace Area.
The burned storage room in the south of area III-a-16 is placed in an area that had not yet been touched by the older excavations.

1.4 "The Temple Area"- I-e-13-14; I-f-12-13-14; I-g-13-14 

New rooms in the living quarter  (plate XIV)
The analysis of the Temple area in 2005 proved that the settlement had been partly left during the Late Bronze Age, only a few rooms and courtyards especially north of the so called street had experienced further utilization. To clarify this result we opened the area I-e/f-13 and 14 to the north to search for further architectural remains and their chronology. The northern part of this settlement area had been void of any building structures. Hence, settlement activities, as already assumed, did not extend to the northern area during the Late Bronze Age.
For further research on the settlement layout - and in order to get more insights into activities, that had taken place in this quarter we opened the areas I-f/g-12, 13, 14 to the south (plate XIV). Several rooms and courtyards have been seized, the walls still preserved in an excellent condition. In addition to the already known three building complexes south of the street (A, B, F), a further building - house H - has been brought to light and the uncovering of complex B has been extended to the south.
North of the street, parts of complex I, directly neighbouring complex C, have been excavated. A small room Rt10 was laid out with flat stones, marking a floor level. Slightly south-west to this feature, a small courtyard Ct20 contained a tannour, emphasizing the usage of this settlement area for domestic activities. The street itself had been further exposed for about 4m to the southwest. The southern wall, bordering the street, seems to end in the southwest as indicated by a cornerstone there.
Building complex B has been enlarged to the south where we acquired a further courtyard, Ct14, equipped with a tannour in its south-western corner. This courtyard adjoins in the west to room Rt15. In the immediate neighbourhood we layed open the southern part of complex F, which was connected to room Rt15 as well as to room Rt17. From room Rt17 another room Rt16, already exposed in the former excavations could be reached.
In the south-eastern corner of this settlement- area, the western wall and corner of the Temple-building has been reached and layed open.
Finds and installations 
As mentioned above courtyards Ct14 and Ct20 had been equipped with tannours. In all rooms, courtyards and in the street Late Bronze Age pottery has been found and several hammerstones (plate XVII) as well as several bronze weapons (plate XVIII) had been seized. Mortars belonged to the inventory of the living quarter (plate XX), a fine filigree worked head of a duck, made of dark grey stone (plate XX) and a small clay figurine (see plate XIX) which appeared on the stone floor in complex I.
The deep trench in courtyard Ct4  (plate XIV)
By opening a deep trench in courtyard Ct4 we reached several ash-layers as well as a red clay layer, bare of pottery, but filled and mixed with small stones. A pit had been deepened down into that layer, running underneath wall Wt 3. This pit had been filled with ashes and pottery, the latter still of Late Bronze Age date. In its southern part a stone pavement occurred, which covered at least 3 graves with at least 6 individuals.
The burials - graves I-f-14/2/2007 (plate XV) and I-f-14/4/20073
Grave I-f-14/2/07 occured in the southwestern part of the deep trench, containing two individuals, one adult and one infans. The adult person had been laying on his or her right hand side, the skull oriented to the east. In his/her right hand a vessel had been placed. Underneath the head of the adult person the skull of the child appeared. Additional several single human bones had been found. The stratigraphical situation of the burials is complex, the bodies were partly overrun by walls wt3 and wt5.
Grave I-f-14/4/07, another only fragmentary preserved skeleton, occured underneath grave I-f-14/2/07.
Burials in grave I-f-14/3/2007 (plate XVI)
In the south-eastern corner of the room grave I-f-14/3/07 could be excavated. The pit contained at least 3 individuals, one nearly complete (ind.1), one adult and one juvenile only partly preserved (ind. 2 and 3). Animal bones had been deposited next to the human skeletons. The detailed stratigraphical and chronological analysis of all the burials is in progress, but further information, i.e. the enlargement of the deep trenches are required to get all the insights necessary to evalutate burial habits, chronological considerations and the stratigraphical relationships in this part of the living area.
The deep trench in room Rt23  (plate XIV)
The floor of room Rt23 has been cut in east-west direction, the trench layed out here deepened for about 1m, when a stone wall occured, running nnw-sse. The pottery accompanying this wall dates to the Middle Bronze Age (for details see the pottery report).
Short summary 
According to the results of the pottery analyses the complexes in the immediate surrounding of the Temple, excavated in the years 2002, 2004 and 2007 as well as the burials there, date to the Late Bronze Age period. The living area abutted the Temple-building and, as stated in the former reports, did not extend to the north during the Late Bronze Age, but to the south and west. The street and the alleys adjoin in a right angle, i.e. they give hints to a planned layout of the settlement. For the first time in Kamid el-Loz we seized "burials" underneath the floor of a house, whether belonging to that house or being older has still to be clarified. For the time being these so called burials do not all seem to have been inhumations of "complete bodies". It rather seems that in some cases the pits had been used for the discard of the dead. The interpretation of the burial-habits as well as the detailed analysis of the stratigraphical and chronological position of the graves should be postponed until further information, gained through further excavations during the next season, are available. With the deep trench in room Rt23 we reached the next older layer, i.e. the Middle Bronze Age settlement.

2. Preliminary Pottery Evaluation 

East Slope 
The 2007 excavations at the East Slope produced a large amount of pottery from the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age, as well as from the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
In area II-e-5 two main periods can be verified according to the pottery analysis: The pottery from the upper layers comprised Roman and Hellenistic objects, while the precedent layers provided Iron Age III material. The same sequence was established in the adjoining area II-e- 6. Additionally, Iron I layers were reached in II-e-6, represented mainly by cooking pots. 
The deep trench in area II-e-6 contained a variety of diagnostic Late Bronze Age pottery. Of special interest is a Bilbil-like vessel of Cypriot Base-Ring Ware (plate XXI, upper left corner). A very similar vessel was found in the Palace (Palace P 4), in the context of the old excavations. Another special feature of the Late Bronze pottery from the deep trench in II-e-6 is the occurrence of Red-Slipped Ware which is also present in the deep trench of area III-a-15 (Palace Area).
In area II-e-7 the upper layers (near and above house 2) are as well characterized by Hellenistic and Roman pottery. As in area II-e-6, the deep trench in II-e-7 contained a large amount of homogeneous Late Bronze Age pottery. A rim-neck fragment of a Bilbil, representing a Cypriot Base-Ring Ware II vessel (plate XXI, upper right corner), derives from this trench. Comparable fragments had been found in the so called Treasury of Kamid el-Loz as well as in the Palace inventory, here in phase 4.
Palace Area 
The pottery from units 1 and 3 from the Palace Area corresponds well with the Late Bronze Age pottery from the East Slope. The pottery assemblages of area III-a-15 included some fragments of Cypriot Base Ring Ware II as well as a fragment of a Cypriot Milk Bowl (white-slip ware) (plate XXI). As a whole, units 1 and 3 are characterized by fragments of larger vessels with applicated/incised fishbone pattern, Red-Slipped Ware, and vessels with trefoil spout.
In area III-a-16 a great quantity of pottery was found in room 8, the burned storage room (unit 2). The pottery from this context is of special relevance, since it forms a room inventory (plate XII, below). Several complete or almost complete vessels, among them a couple of storage vessels, derived from this context. Furthermore, the assemblages contained many everted-rim bowls with ring-bases. The interior of these bowls is often vertically burnished, while the exterior shows no special surface treatment. These bowls find close parallels within the Middle Bronze Age contexts at Tell Arqa (MBII). Some smaller jugs show combed decorations which is also a characteristic feature of Middle Bronze Age pottery.
The vessel form and decoration (dark-red painting on red surface) of a jar from area I-i-15 stands for the typical Palace-pottery in Kamid el-Loz and has its closest analogies in the inventory of Palace P4 (plate XXII).
Temple Area 
The pottery excavated 2007 in the Temple Area dates predominantly to the Late Bronze Age. Moreover we reached the Middle Bronze Age layers in this field. 
In areas I-f-13 and I-f-14 two complete respectively nearly complete rhyta were uncovered (plate XXIII). Small fragments of similar rhyta were few and far between found in the Temple context (Temple 2) during the excavations of the University of Saarbrücken.
Cypriot wares also belonged to the assemblages of the Temple Area, among them so called Milk Bowls and Bilbil Necks of Base-Ring Ware I (plate XXI). 
Of special interest concerning the Temple Area pottery are furthermore a carinated bowl (plate XXIII below) and a sherd with painting on a white slipped surface.
It was the deep trench in area I-f-12 which held the pottery of the Middle Bronze Age, namely double or triple strand handles, body-sherds with combed decoration, and characteristic Middle Bronze Age rim forms.

1  The pottery analysis is still in progress. The detailed chronological results concerning the Iron Age II - III sequence at the East Slope will be presented in a future volume.
 The wall numbers of the palace are preliminary and will be revised for the upcoming publication.
 Some bone fragments in area I-e-14, found without architectural context or grave-pit and exposend while cleaning the area had been termed as "grave 1", a label then kept for this bone-collection.


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