Grabungskampagne 2002

Kamid el-Loz 2002


6th season
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg
Vorderasiatische Altertumskunde


Director: Prof. Dr. M.Heinz

Trench supervisors
Collo, Alexander, cand.phil.
- Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg
Groá, Andreas, cand. phil - Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg
Kirsch, Lisa, M.A. - Berlin
van Lengerich, Luitgart, cand. phil. - Humboldt-Universität Berlin
Nieling, Jens, M.A. - Eberhardt-Karls-Universität, Tübingen
Wagner, Elisabeth, cand. phil. - Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg

Pottery studies
Janatsch, Verena, cand.phil. - Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg
Pokrandt, Jana, cand. phil. - Freie Universität, Berlin
Hassan Yahya, Licence - Lebanese University, Beirut

Aufschnaiter, Maja, M.A. - Universität Wien, Vienna
Leicht, Michael - freelance graphic-designer, Freiburg

Hanna, Georges - Lebanese University, Zahle 




The success of the season 2002 is due to the help of many. First of all I would like to thank Dr. Frederic Husseini, General Director of the National Department of Antiquities for his cooperation and the generous help in administration and organisation. This work would not have been possible without the financial support of the Gerda Henkel - Foundation and the Deutsche Forschungs-gemeinschaft. My sincere thanks go to both foundations, especially to Dr. Hemfort and Dr. Bienert for help and advice during the planning phase of the excavation. In Kamid el-Loz, mayor Haidar Shad‚ al Hajj gave us all the aid we needed - many thanks for this. During the season 2002 Assad Seif, M.A., spend a day with us, discussing the pottery of the season 2002 and giving the first hints at the chronology of the pottery. I would like to thank Assad Seif very much for his generous assistance. His support was a very great help for us. Prof. Dr. Helen Sader, AUB, and Suzy Hakimian, GDA, supported us, as in the many years before, with advice and practical help, but above all with their warm friendship. My special thanks for the friendliness and the "open doors"!

As always: an excavation is only as good as its team - my sincere thanks again to the 37 workmen of Kamid el-Loz for six weeks of cooperative and humorous working together.

And last but not least - my sincere thanks to the team of students and colleagues, who took part in the 2002 excavation with great enthusiasm: Maja Aufschnaiter, Alexander Collo, Andreas Groá George Hanna, Verena Janatsch, Lisa Kirsch, Michael Leicht, Luitgard van Lengerich, Jens Nieling, Jana Pokrandt, Elisabeth Wagner and Hassan Yahya.

 * As usual this report is to be seen as a piece of "work in progress", a draft version of a first report, written during the excavation time. Still missing details concerning the chronological position of pottery and buildings, sections and ground-plans that are still being drawn, and drawings and photographs of contexts and small-finds will be added later, back in Germany.

While the excavation proceeds, finds and information usually occur when the lay-out of the report’s draft version has already been done. In deciding whether to leave interesting information out or do a somewhat unconventional layout of the plates we decided in favour of the information!

Kamid el-Loz, 11. September 2002

 I. Working Period 
The German archaeological team arrived in Lebanon on Tuesday, August 6 2002. Work begun on Wednesday, August 7 2002. The season ended on Wednesday, September 19 2002.

 II. Scientific Aims of the Season 2002 
In 2002 the excavation has been extended to four areas: the "slope area", the temple, the palace, and a new area, so far unexcavated, south-west of the palace (Plate I).

 "Slope Area"
During the season 2001 house II was excavated in the "slope area". Its ground plan, aspects of its functions and its chronological position have been cleared on the whole. In 2002 our interests concentrated on the surrounding buildings, their functions and chronological positions.

In area II-e-6, a deep sounding shall give information about the building-layers and stratigraphy of the "slope area". Further stratigraphical research will be done in area II-e-7 and II-e-9.

In II-e-7 a sarcophagus was placed close to the northern wall of house II (see season 2001).

The grave pit contained painted fragments of iron-age pottery, closely connected to Cyprus in form and decoration (plate II, see also Bikai, 1987:plate XXI, 565). In II-e-9 a massive stone wall, which probably presents an older building layer than house II, was discovered in 2001.

Stratigraphy and chronology of this context will be analysed in 2002.

Temple Area
In 1999 the excavation in area I-f-16 exposed the ground plan of a temple, part or predecessor of the - to date not yet fully published - temple T5. The temple area as a whole shows signs of destructions from looting activities. The 2002 season should clarify the degree of preservation of the temple area and its surroundings. In addition, we will collect further information about the stratigraphy and older building-layers with a deep sounding in area I-f-12. The excavation 2002 extends over the area I-f-12, 13, 14.

Palace Area
Looting and destruction also affected the palace area. Soundings south and west of the former (Hachmann-) excavation-areas in I- i-13, 14 will clarify the situation, i.e. the preservation of the palace’s surrounding area and possible older structures will be examined.

South-West of the Palace
The area south-west of the palace is still unexplored to date. A trench in this region shall give first information about settlement activities, the chronology of the context and, within a deep trench, the possible succession of building-layers.

III. Short Overview of the History of the Site 
The earliest known history of the settlement Kamid el-Loz starts during the early Bronze Age. The most recent known settlement dates back into Roman times.

As pottery fragments, found in a stratigraphical sondage, show that an early Bronze Age settlement existed in Kamid el-Loz. The first architectural evidence of a proper settlement comes from living houses on the site, which according to the pottery can be dated into the middle Bronze Age. Nothing so far can be said about the function and character of the settlement during these two periods. It was only in the following late-bronze age, that Kamid el-Loz, then called Kumidi developed into a major city in South-Beqa'a. A temple, a palace, a workshop area and some graves formed the main architectural structures of which remains have been discovered. While the general lay-out of the city is still unknown, some hints concerning its function are available. As texts from Egypt and Kumidi show, the city has been used as the seat of the Egyptian administration in the Beqa'a, Egypt then being the dominant power in the region. When the Egyptian power diminished and major political changes took place in the area, Kumidi lost its important position. It seems that the city was partly abandoned. During the following Iron Age period, the city seems to have regressed to a small village from which so far (2001) only some scanty remains of houses survived. It is known from the results of the excavations of the Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg in 1997, 1999, 2000 and 2001 that tell Kamid el-Loz has been used as a settlement site until the late Hellenistic / early Roman period. "Tannurs", part of a house and part of a so called paved walk-way have been found in 1997. In 1999 and 2000 work concentrated on the so called "Kuppe" (hilltop) region, where a house (living area, handicraft) and the so called "glacis" have been exposed. In 2000 the excavation was enlarged, trenches were opened in the east and a second building of the late Hellenistic / early Roman period were discovered. The excavation 2001 exposed further architectural proof of the Hellenistic-Roman settlement with house II. When the inhabitants of the Roman settlement moved to another spot, the former living-areas were once again transformed into a cemetery. According to the pottery and glass finds, the settlements on the "Kuppe" as well as on the eastern slope and the area south-west of the palace (season 2000, 2001, 2002) have probably been used from the third century B.C until the first century A.D. without any hiatus. The fact that the site has been settled during late Hellenistic- early Roman times gives a new insight into the history of Kamid el-Loz, when compared to the results of the excavations done by the University of Saarbrücken.

Roman pottery was in use between 100 B.C. and 600 A.D. (Hayes 1997:12). In political terms the history of the Roman Empire is divided into the Republican period (c.509-31 B.C.) and the Imperial period (31 / 27 B.C. - 324, 410, 476 A.D.). In its early years this Roman period overlapped with the Greek culture, the "Hellenistic period". The end of the Roman period sees the beginning of the new Christian Byzantine civilisation of Constantinople (op.cit., S.12).



absolute chronology

domestic architecture



building periods



* 50 B.C. -50 A.D.





* terra sigillata


* 3rd.- 1st. century B.C.





* megarian bowls

iron age I

800 - 1200 B.C.






late bronze age I-IIB

1200 - 1600 B.C.


palace 1-5

temple 1-3



middle bronze age

1600 - 1900 B.C.


not reached

temple 4



middle bronze age IIA

1900 - 2100 B.C.






middle bronze I chalcolithic

2100 - 4100 B.C.






Fig. 1 Chronology of the site

IV. Excavation Areas 

1. The "Slope Area" II-e-4 to 8, II-d-5, II-f-8-9 (Alexander Collo, Jens Nieling, Elisabeth Wagner  (Plate I)

1.1 Description of building structures and graves 

1.1.1 Area II-e-4, II-e-5, II-d-5 (Alexander Collo) The "glacis" 
Compared to the other trenches in the Roman areas, II-e-5, II-e-4 and II-d-5 were only partially covered by the so called "glacis". Especially in the areas that contained the graves (see below), the "glacis" did not surface. In the other contexts the "glacis" covered the upper stones of the walls. The Rooms 12, 13 and the "basin", area II-e-5, II-e-4 and II-d-5 
In areas II-e-5 and II-d-5 several Roman walls and installations were found (plate III a). Room 12 includes the walls M 19 and M 20. In the northern part of area II-e-5 and the southern part of II-d-5 big walls with different stone quality were found. These form room 13. They are obviously not directly connected to the structures of the Roman houses, they seem to be an isolated structure. The thick wall M 47, which runs parallel to the walls M 31 and M 36, possibly belongs to the same structure as room 13. Because of its thickness, it probably functioned as an outer wall. The outer rows of stones of room 13 partially contain stones from presumably different periods or different buildings, which seem to have been re-used in room 13. Concerning the walls 31, 32, 33 and 36, two kinds of stone quality can be differentiated: on the one hand we have the better fashioned stones which look "typically Roman" (like the threshold stone in area II-d-5, marked on plate III b with an *). On the other hand, we have rows of stones which are almost parallel to the stones of the better quality type and which are less worked on than the first ones (see plate III c). Between these less worked on stones plaster of two different kinds were found: the one kind consists of an approx. 5 cm thick layer, which also appears either as "Versturz" (debris) or in connection with re-used stones within the walls. The wall constructions show at least two building-phases, of which the first one is probably Roman, while the second phase was added in a later period, which cannot be defined yet. Inside that structure of room 13 several artifacts were found: some rubbing stones and a small lime-stone-base (plate VIII), which is worked on on three sides and has a deepening on the top (findspot 223). It is possibly a Roman mini-altar and hints at a sacral function of the structure. Outside room 13 at the north-eastern corner of the structure a 0.5 cm thick ash layer was found which possibly belongs to the same context as room 13. The working place 
A tannur was found in area II-e-4. Because of the lack of walls around it the tannur cannot be added to a room yet. It obviously hints at a production area. Another indication of household-production in the house is given by several rubbing-stones, mortars and tools made of flint and bones and a spindle (small finds 209, 212 and 216) . The "basin" 
In the eastern part of area II-e-5 a structure with a plastered base and a low plastered edge has been found. This structure is connected to the two "wells" in area II-e-6 through a hole. There are no walls around the edge of the basin to support the plastered rims, except on the eastern side of the basin (wall M 34). The sloping level of the base of this basin can be explained by the production or the gathering of water or beverages like wine. A detailed comparison with other examples of plastered constructions in the area can only be given after a future analysis of the material. The basin is about 4 x 3 meters wide and about 30 cm deep. The only rim of the basin which is supported by stones is the one on the north-eastern side (wall M 34).

The structure cannot be dated yet. On the surface of the basin the glacis was found, so that we can conclude that the period of the glacis directly followed the period of the basin. The graves (plate IV
The Roman structures contained several graves of different periods. The relation between the Roman houses and the graves is still unexplained (see below, stratigraphy).

Several types of burials can be distinguished in trench II-e-5:

a) The stone graves: In the western part there are five graves of the same kind, in which the skeletons were laying on their sides with the heads turned to the south. The graves were covered with big slabs, while their borders were framed by one or two rows of stones, forming the chambers for the buried.

Graves 4, 5 and 6: The heads of the skeletons were turned to the south, all three were laying on their the right side. The skeleton in grave 4 had a bronze ring on its hand, the arms were bent in an angle of about 70 degrees. Graves 13 also belongs to this type.

Grave 7 is rather exceptional among the individual graves. While the west-east position and the big slabs above the skeleton remind of the graves 4 and 5, and maybe of grave 1 and 3, the position of the skeletons fits rather into the context of the other so called "mass graves" found in II-e-5 (see below).

The graves 1, 2 and 3 can be added to this type as well. In spite of the big slabs above the skeletons, small stones of low quality were laid onto the graves.

b) The second type of graves are the so called "mass burials" or multiple burials, in which three to five skeletons were found. Neither grave goods nor grave constructions (e.g. made of stone) were found. In area II-e-5 three mass graves were found approx. 40 cm beneath the surface. As shown on plate III, two of them were put on the glacis so that we can conclude that they belong to a modern period. The third multiple burial even caused a distortion of wall 20, which was obviously built in the Roman time.

A fourth multiple burial was surprisingly found in a construction of a typical individual grave with stones and big slabs as the grave’s boundaries. Instead of a single body in a special position, five individuals were buried in this grave, who were neither in a standardized position nor lay in an anthropomorphical unit. Four skulls of adults and a one of a child were found inside the grave. Compared to the skeletons in grave 4, 5 and 7 the skulls are not specially positioned. While the skulls were found complete, large parts of the bodies, like the spines or the pelvises, were missing from the graves. Probably grave 6 is a secondary burial from the same period as the graves of the first type.

c) A third type of burial is illustrated by one skeleton (grave 9), placed under an amount of big amphora sherds. The legs and the head of the skeleton were missing completely.

All in all, 10 individual graves were found in the areas II-e-5 and II-e-4. Whether there was a usage of the tell as a cemetery as well as a settlement at the same time, cannot be said at the moment. On the one hand, there are several graves without visible distortion in the same level as the Roman building structures (graves 4, 5, 8 and 12). On the other hand, we also have obviously later burials, penetrating the Roman buildings from above (graves 7, 10 and 12).

Although a dating of the graves cannot be given at the moment, an approximation can be made: the earliest of all the graves in the trench seems to be grave 3, because of its undistorted context and the relatively deep location of the skeleton. It is the only skeleton in the area in north-east/south-west position (see also the graves in area II-e-6, report J. Nieling).

The most common grave type is the one with big slabs and a stone frame (graves 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10). According to the pottery evidence they might belong to the Roman period.

The last kind of grave in the area might be the mass graves - they caused distortions and are located only 30 to 50 cm under the surface (see above).

1.1.2 Area II-e-6 (Jens Nieling) Description of building structures and graves 

Settlement (plate III)
The youngest stratum in Area II-e-6 forms a settlement, which has not been dated yet and might be medieval.

It was covered by the so called glacis, a layer of 10-20 cm large stones which seals the whole tell. In Area II-e-6 the glacis seems to be orientated in an 45 degree angle towards the north and to lie in roughly rectangular structures. A possible explanation may be found by assuming floor-substructures, which were eroded and robbed of their framing stones.

Single (garden-) walls and a house were mostly destroyed by the construction of the glacis. The house’s winery, two well-like caverns, lay in II- e- 6. For connected floor and building see plan of area II-e-5 (to be published)..

Cemetery (plate IV)
The period of settlement is divided by a 1,20 m thick layer of earth from a period of burial-use of the site. The level and position of the graves allow to distinguish three different subphases.

The uppermost grave no. 4 is in a west-east position and is probably connected to the inhumations in II-e-5, although there was no pit visible in the section. It may be late Roman or Byzantine. Underneath a layer of stones a north-south (no.1) and two south-north (no.3 and no.11) positioned burials were discovered. No.1 is an undecorated sarcophagus with one adult man. He wore nailed shoes and had an As or half Sestertius as a Charon’s coin in his mouth. The sarcophagus closed tightly, thus there was very little earth inside. No.3 was a simple inhumation with the head facing south and no gravegoods. Grave no.11 has the same position. Between the thighs of the presumably female deceased lay a rounded, hollowed sherd, which may have served as a spindle. The pit for no.3, although not visible, may be responsible for the destruction of no. 2 at a higher level (no. 2 is a badly eroded pot grave or even a tanoor-oven).

Settlement (plate III)
Burial no.3 is aligned to wall M 45, whose course runs towards the Roman house II in II-e-7 and may be connected. Nearby under the half fallen stones of the wall a tanoor-oven and a round jar were preserved in situ. Apart from this structure there were no traces of the early Roman settlement in II-e-6.

Cemetery (plate IV)
Not far west of wall M 45 a perfectly preserved amphoriskos of late Hellenistic date was placed. 30 cm below the vessel lay grave no.10, a woman with her child (infant 1). This double-grave belongs to the oldest layer of burials (nos.5-10), which had a diagonal position. Their heads lay in the south-west, the legs towards the north-east. The inhumations were arranged in rows, this gives the impression of an organised cemetery in its state of foundation. The deceased had no grave goods, but two women wore small bronze jewellery.

Settlement (plate III)
In the west of the trench the graves were directly placed on top of an orange-red layer of burned mud bricks (like M 22), which had fallen from a wall that may still be standing in II-e-5. On and in between the bricks, large spots of charcoal and cinder imply a destruction by fire. Under the destruction-layer an 80 cm wide wall (M 46) leads from the north-west and the south-east through the trench. It runs underneath the pit of the sarcophagus and forms the oldest structure reached in 2002. It seems to be part of an Iron Age II settlement.

1.1.3 Area II-e-8, II-f-8, II-f-9 (Elisabeth Wagner) The Roman house III (plate III
In the areas II f 8, II f 9, and above all II e 8, three walls have been recovered, which surely belong to the Roman period. These walls (M 24, 29, 30) form room 1 of house III. Wall M 24 is extraordinarily well preserved, erected of hewed stones, and belongs to the construction type 'Schalenmauerwerk'. Wall M 29 has been build similar to this, but unfortunately it has been disturbed by modern destruction in its eastern parts. The third wall, M 30, has only been excavated in a small part yet, but we were able to draw some conclusions from this spot. Not belonging to the house’s limiting walls like M 24 and M 29, it is the eastern wall of room 1. M 30 is erected out of block stones and preserved in good condition. Room 1 shows a clear connection with the rooms of house II, this can be seen from the type of wall and floor construction. The floor of room 1 (house III) is made out of the same stone plates as in room 1/house II and room 8 /house II (see report 2001). This floor as well as wall M 30 and wall M 29 has been destructed in its eastern parts. We suppose that house III has the same dimensions as house II and continues further to the east and to the south. Further Roman structures (no plates) The ‘glacis’ 
The so called 'glacis' could be excavated and examined in the areas II-f-8 and II-e-7. It covered wall M 24 and parts of room 1, as well as parts of the walls M 24 and M 29. In all these cases the glacis has been recovered immediately under the recent surface (30-40 cm); it stretched over the structures without any further layer dividing them. Wall M 38 
In the area II f 9, a badly preserved wall, M 38, has been excavated, which - based on the pottery analyses- belongs to the Roman period. The wall, made of stone blocks and only preserved in a length of 1 meter, can not be connected to any wider context. Wall M 27 in II-e-7 
In the north of area II-e-7 a wall has been discovered, which, according to the pottery, belongs to Roman times, but can not be put into any relation to the other Roman structures. An opening of the trench towards the north would be necessary to gain further information on this question (to be done in 2003; for further information see II-e-7, below) The sarcophagus (II-e-7) 
In order to examine the pit of the sarcophagus discovered last season, section l has been studied and three different layers, belonging to the sarcophagus pit, were identified. These three layers have been excavated. The sarcophagus had been deepened into layers of pre-Roman times, as shown by the pottery (see plate II).

1.2. Stratigraphy / Chronology 

1.2.1 Area II-e-5 and II-d-5 (Alexander Collo) 
1. The first layer is an alluvial layer of brown earth and small stones that contains pottery from the late Bronze Age period up to Islamic sherds.

2. The second layer contains nearly exclusively Roman pottery. Its earth is light brown and about 30cm to 50 cm deep. This layer begins underneath the glacis. The majority of terra sigillata sherds was found in this layer.

3. The transition to the next layer is not sure, especially because the pottery hardly differs from the layer above. What can be said for sure is that the pottery of layer II and III are both from the Roman period. Some Terra Sigillata sherds were found in this layer. It is less compact than the second layer and the earth seems more perforated than the earth above it. It gives the impression of being an alluvial layer (although this interpretation seems not very probable).

4. The fourth layer can be described as a pale brown, almost yellowish coloured layer, which can easily be differentiated from the above layers. According to a fragment of an oil lamp from the Iron Age and the different character of the finds in this layer (e.g. the fragment of a stone portrait, see plate VI) the context is possibly an earlier than Roman. A detailed analysis of the chronological position will follow. Because of the aims of our work in area II-e-5, following up the Roman structures layer IV has only been achieved to a small degree. For an extended description of this layer see the reports of Jens Nieling and Elisabeth Wagner.

1.2.2 Area II-e-6 (Jens Nieling) 

Until the examination of the pottery is finished, the age of the complex with walls and the winery-house remains unknown. A date might be concluded from the filling of the wine-cistern and perhaps through the relation of the "garden walls" to the Roman house II.

At this date the sequence is as follows:

M 11 cuts through M 10 and runs over M 25.

M 10 has the same level as M 22 but is slightly younger. It uses M 22, but cuts it.

M 22 runs presumably over the winery.

M 25 is cut, respectively overrun, by M 10.

A terminus post quem is given by the 1,20 m thick layer of yellow grey soil. It contains glas, some eastern sigillata and two biparte fibulae which may date to the later Roman / Iron Age.

The west-eastern grave no. 4 has to remain undated, however it is younger than the sarcophagus no. 1. The worn out first century coin and the beginning of the sarcophagus burial customs date it into the later 2nd or 3rd century. In early Roman times the site has been occupied by rural houses 2 and 3 in II-e-7. They contradict a burial deposit in their immediate vicinity.

Most important for the chronology of the trench is the complete late Hellenistic amphoriskos (A. Berlin, Tel Anafa IIi - gives a date Late Hell. 2 A-C or 125-80 BC. (plate Xa). The chim exposition offers a period from the 3rd to the 2nd century BC.

As terminus ante quem it pushes up the diagonal graves at least into the Hellenistic period.

The destruction layer with charcoal and mud bricks contained little ceramic. Rim shards of cooking pots imply an Iron Age II date, i.e. the 7th to 6th century BC. Further excavation and radiocarbon analysis will help to secure the most ancient structures in II-e-6 found in 2002.

1.2.3 Area II-e-8, II-f-8, II-f-9 (Elisabeth Wagner) House III 
As mentioned above, house III belongs to the same building period as house II. Because of the small excavated area, there are no structures to clear, apart from room 1.The room itself was covered and filled with soil, without any signs of a destruction. According to the pottery, house III and room 1 belong to the same period as house II (Hellenistic-Roman). The walls (II-f-8 / II-f-9) not belonging to house III 
All walls, dated by the pottery, belong to Roman times. According to the placement of these walls and their nivellements, wall FS 154 and wall FS164 do not belong to the same phases as houses II and III. Furthermore, wall FS 164 should be older than wall FS 154. Wall 27 in II-e-7 
Concerning Wall M 27 no stratigraphic relations to other buildings or walls could be identified. Immediately beneath the wall, another wall structure was excavated, which belongs to the late Bronze / Iron Age transition period. Sarcophagus 
The sarcophagus has been recovered during the last campaign, only the grave pit had to be cleared. The pit had been deepened into Iron Age layers, but fortunately this did not disturb any other structures.

1.3 Functions in the immediate neighbourhood of house II 

1.3.1 Area II-e-5 and II-d-5 (Alexander Collo) 
Only little can at this point be said about the function of the structures in the Areas II-e-5-, II-e-4 and II-d-5. Because of the big amount of rubbing stones and other finds having to do with production in a household (like the tannur), the place was obviously used as a supporting area for the houses at the bottom of the tell. The walls M 19 and M 20 hint at an enclosed structure, which has probably been disturbed by the later graves.

Even less can be said about the function of the structure to which room 13 belongs. The two stones in the middle of the room (see plate X) and the mini-altar (see plate VIII) possibly hint at a special (maybe sacral) function of this area.

Although the use of the tell as a graveyard as well a settlement at the same time seems improbable because of the distortions of the roman walls, a simultaneous usage is not impossible.

1.3.2 Area II-e-6 (Jens Nieling) 
Trench II e 6 shows a constant change between settlement and burial use in the area.

IA II 6. Century BC settlement (M46/mudbrick layer)

Hell. 3./2. Century BC/AD cemetery (diagonal graves)

E Roman 1./1. Century BC/AD settlement (house 2 and 3)

L Roman 2./3. Century AD cemetery (sarcophagus, S-N graves)

4./5. Century AD ? cemetery (W-E graves)

medieval/recent ? settlement winery-house

recent ? cemetery (W-E graves II e 7)

Modern cemetery around the mosque 

1.3.3 Area II-e-7, II-e-8, II-f-8, II-f-9 (Elisabeth Wagner) 
In case of the Roman house III, no inventory which could be used as a starting point for information concerning its function has been found. The common building type of the houses II and III seems to hint perhaps at the same functions as houses II and III - two large rural buildings with places of a more representative character (see the well laid stone-floors).

1.4 The deep trenches. 

1.4.1 Area II-e-6 - see above - report Jens Nieling (see also plate X

1.4.2 Area II-e-7 (Elisabeth Wagner) (plate XI
In the northern quarter of area II-e-7 several stone structures have been discovered.These structures comprise several walls (M 27, 28 without illustration)(M 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, plate XI), one tannour, one grave (plate XI) and a stone layer, the latter giving the idea of a floor or a special working place.

Stratigraphically wall M 27 (mentioned above; Roman period) is the youngest structure in this area. M 27 covers M 28 (has been build over M 28), which belongs to the phase when the tannour was in use (section to be published).

The grave (plate XI):
The grave contained one body, which was situated between two stone rows and partly covered with stones. The upper part of the body was disturbed, the rips and most of the cranium destroyed. The lower part, hips and long bones were well preserved and in situ, the hands lying near the hips. No grave goods have been found.

The grave partly covered the stone layer and the walls M 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 and belongs to the same phase as wall M 28. Walls M 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 differ in their orientation and are connected to each other. The walls M 39, 40, 41, 42 and 43 presumably belong to one superstructure. As far as it can be seen at this point, walls M 39, 40, 42 and 43 formed the outer walls of one room and wall 40 and 41 formed the corner of another room. This structure, earlier than the one described above, can safely be dated with the help of the pottery. In this layer a pilgrim flask (plate XIVa) and other pottery fragments indicate a late Bronze / Iron Age transitional context (findspot 121).

Concerning the functions of this contexts, no information can be given at this state of the excavation.

After clearing the stratigraphy of this context, a further small deep-trench has been openend in this area to explore further the stratigraphy and chronology of the spot. The trench has been deepened down to 933, 90 m (to be published). The sections show 14 layers. 5 of them can be deemed as the most important ones. The first layer mostly contains earth with little mud brick inclusions, the following two seem to be of clay (red, grey, brown), the last 2 layers (the deepest one so far) are destruction layers including mud brick fragments of various kinds and colours as well as ashes and charcoal. The plane shows a stone wall (east-west) in the south (mud-brick). According to the pottery analysis this still dates to the late Bronze/Iron age, but the amount of pottery in the deepest layers is too small for any further investigation.

1.4.3 The deep trench in II-f-9 / II-f-8 (Elisabeth Wagner)(plate XII
In 2001 we opened the first part of the deep-trench in II-f-9, exposing wall M 44. Running from the east to the west, the wall is almost 2.5 meters wide. In its south-western parts the wall cuts a brick wall (FS 165), which itself is based on a stone wall (plate XII, photo).

In its south-eastern part wall M 44 cuts a further structure (FS 171, maybe a wall - to be cleared in 2003). In the space between the brick wall and FS 171, fragments of mould brick have been discovered (findspot 159), probably fallen down from FS 165.

The whole section was covered with a layer of little rubble stones and clay of different density and colour. While the surface layer contained mostly Roman pottery, the pottery underneath the rubble stones belongs to the early Iron / late Bronze Age. So far no functional estimations can be given for these structures.

 2.The Temple Area I-f-12-14 (Lisa Kirsch) 

2.1 Preparation of the excavation area (see plate XV
Since the temple area had been partly destroyed in its upper layers by robbery activities, an artifical planum, a working platform had to be prepared (plate XV). As soon as the sections showed proper layers and building structures, the preparation of the planum was stopped and the excavation begun. Three sondages would give information about the structures, stratigraphy and chronology in this neighbourhood of the so called temple area.

2.1.1 Trench 1 (plate XV
Trench 1, (north-south, 10 m x 1m and 1.50 m deep) has provided first clues concerning the structures to be expected in this context. In its southern corner, stones of a massive wall have been discovered, the context to the north is partly disturbed by robber holes. According to the information here trench 2 had been opened.

2.1.2 Trench 2 (plates XV and XVIIIa
Trench 2, in the beginning 1,50 m wide and 28 m long ( east-west), has been widened to

6,50 m in the east and 8 m in the west. The area contained 18 walls, build of unhewn limestone, mostly built in two rather irregular rows. Concerning parts of wall M 5 and wall M 6, the foundation of the walls consists of oval shaped crosswise set stones. Above the stones of wall M 5, a brick construction is visible in the southern section of the excavated area.

3 houses were partly unearthed (Houses A, B, C).

House A is surrounded by wall M 2 in the NE, wall M 5 in the NW and wall M 3 in the SW. At least 4 rooms have been excavated (rooms 2 to 5). Whether room 1, in the NE of wall M 2, belongs to the house is not yet clear, it might be a courtyard. In house A two floor levels could be distinguished. Level 2 (the lower level) has been reached in rooms 2, 3 and 5. Level 1 is only visible in the sections of the rooms and in room 4. In room 2, floor level 1 consists of hard clay and a row of big flat stones along wall M 8. On floor level 2, fragments of at least 4 vessels were still in situ (plate XVIIIb). Several changes were made to house A during its use: in level 2, rooms 4 and 5 were divided by wall M 11 with a door at the south-west part of the wall, while on level 1 the floor went over wall M 11, forming one room. In the corner of wall M 3 and wall M 11 a tannur was situated, which was additionally surrounded by a small stone construction in the north-west. In courtyard 1, fragments of at least 5 vessels were unearthed on floor level 1. The entrance to house A probably led through wall M 3 from a little lane (room 6) into room 4.

House B is separated from house A by the lane room 6. Only one room of this building is partly excavated (room 7). It is surrounded by wall M 10 in the NE and wall M 5 in the NW. Thwo floor levels have been reached, on floor level one we found a complete cooking pot in the corner between wall M 10 and wall M 5 (plate XVIIIb). Level 2 was reached only in a small part in the eastern part of room 7. In wall M 5 a closed entrance is visible, but the lowest level of the closing is about 18 cm deeper than the floor level. Earlier levels in room 7 scan be assumed. The entrance situation in level 1 and 2 is not clear yet.

House C is divided from house A and house B by a small road (room M 11). The south-western limit is wall M 4, other surrounding walls have not yet been excavated. At least three rooms have been discovered (rooms 8, 9 and 12), but the house seems to continue to the north. In room 8 two floor levels have been recognized, level 1 is located in the south-western part with a tannur and shards on the floor.

The floor of the north-western part of the room (level 2) consists of a plaster of big flat stones running down to the east up to wall M 4. Whether some smaller irregular stones just north-east of the tannur form an older wall (M 9) is unclear. The separation between room 12 and wall M 6 has not yet been cleared and the function of room 9 has still to be analysed. It is surrounded by wall M 13 in the NE, wall M 4 in the SE, wall 14 in the SW and wall M 7 in the NW with a wide entrance into room 12. Under a big heap of irregular laid stones a well (?) has been discovered; it consists of a round stone construction with a diameter of 80cm.

Only a little edge of room 10 has been excavated. It is surrounded by wall M 15 in the NE and wall M 7 in the SE, a floor level of mud bricks is visible. Room 12 can be reached through an entrance through room 9 in the SW, the floor level continues into room 9 as far as the stone heap. Room 9 seems to be an open area with the "well" and a wide entrance to room 12. A further room can be expected between wall M 4 and wall M 18.

The Street (see room 11): a small street or lane runs between walls M 4 and M 5. The street is filled with a lot of pottery fragments and animal bones, some of them with butcher marks. The filling of this street also contained several bronze objects, mostly needles, a flint arrow head (plate XVIII) and a small golden object (maybe a cover of a needle). In the southern section different coloured levels are visible, but the filling seems to be very homogenous and filled in within a short period of time.

Floors and walls of all three houses are in excellent conditions.

2.2 Stratigraphy / Chronology 
The buildings of the exposed settlement area belong to one building period that shows

at least two floor levels and several modifications within the rooms (see above). While digging deeper than floor level 2, the walls of the next older building layer have been touched – e.g. the older wall underneath wall M 10 and even the floor level of street 11.

The houses themselves have so far been dated to a transitional phase from middle Bronze to late Bronze Age according to the pottery analysis done during the excavation. A detailed analysis will follow in Germany. As far as we know now, house C contains the largest amountof MB-pottery. Dated pottery comes also from the following contexts:

Room 1: floor level 1 – late Bronze Age (FS 641)

Room 2: floor level 1 – late Bronze and middle Bronze Age (FS 644)

Room 5: floor level 2 – late Bronze Age (FS 639)

Room 7: floor level 1 – late Bronze Age (FS 643)

Room 8: floor level 2 – late Bronze – middle Bronze Age (FS 648) - and above: late Bronze -B middle Bronze Age (FS 646)

Room 9: floor level 1 – middle Bronze Age (FS 649) - and above: middle Bronze age (FS 651)

Street (room 11): late Bronze Age (FS 608)

A correlation of building structures exposed in 2002 with the buildings excavated by the Hachmann-excavations will be compiled shortly.

2.3 The deep trench in I-f-12 (plates XVIIIcXVIIIdXVIIIeXVIIIfXVIIIg
As in areas III-b/c-14-15 and III-a-12-14, a deep-trench in the temple surrounding area should clarify the stratigraphy and chronology of the area. The trench is 5,5 m long (NS), 1,2 m wide (EW) and about 3 m deep (as in the other above mentioned areas, virgin soil has not yet been touched). It shows a succession of 7 undisturbed layers, ash-layers, clay and brick structures. Layer 7 is the deepest/oldest, covering a reddish-yellowish earth layer with tiny limestone inclusions.

Layer 6, ca. 35 cm above 7: a grey ash-layer with inclusions of burned brick and charcoal.

Layer 5, ca 20 cm above 6: a yellowish-brown clay-layer, partly covered with pottery fragments.

Layer 4, ca 30 cm above 5: a light grey ash-layer with charcoal.

Layer 3, ca. 30 cm above 4: dark-grey ash with charcoal. 

Layer 2, ca. 30 cm above 2: burnt layer with a lot of charcoal and burned brick-fragments. 

Layer 1, ca.25 cm above 2: defined by the foundation level of wall 7, ca. 30 cm below level 1 in room 10. 

The pottery, sorted out from the stratigraphically separated contexts (see plate XVIIIc) and so far dated during the excavation, illustrates settling-activities as follows: context 2-3 (slightly deeper than the current building structures) = MB; context 3-4 = MB/EB IV and context 5-6 = EB IV.

3.The Palace Area III-a-12-14, 16 / I-i-13-14, I-i-16 (Andreas Groá) 
plates IXIXXX 

3.1 Description of the preparation of the excavation area (Andreas Groá) 
On the westside of the tell, the so called palace area was disturbed by numerous robbers’ holes and by earth-fortifications of the Israeli army, who used it as a platform for their tanks. Because of this we decided to prepare area III-a-12/13/14/15 with the bulldozer (plate XIX). After we had taken away about 0,5 - 1,0 m of the surface, we noticed a change in the earth of the section and immediately stopped working with the bulldozer.

3.2 Searching trench 5 and the deep trench (plate XXIcXIXXXIaXXIbCarefully cleaning the area by hand, we soon noticed some stone structures on the east side of the place (area III-a-15) and decided to start with trench 5, going 10 m from north to south and 1,5m from east to west (plate XXIc) at this place.

Uncovering several massive stone layers that seemed to have been broken off, we had to open the trench another 1,5 meters to the west to examine them. Taking off the upper layers of these stone rows, walls M 1 and M 2 appeared; built of stones with an average size of 0,5 x 0,3 x 0,5 m. To follow one of these walls from trench 5, leading east to west, and to get an overview of what we had to expect in this about 30 x 15 m area, we continued the trench 5 m to the west (width 1,5 m).The upper layers showed that down to a depth about 1,0 m in certain areas of the trench there was still modern rubbish on the east-half of the new trench (robber pits).

To test how far and how deep these robber pits might go, we decided to open a deep trench here with the help of the poclain. Carefully we deepened the east-west trench down to 3,5 m (width now 2,0 m because of the width of the poclain-shovel) (plate XIX), lenghtening it 22 meters to the west, stopping two times as we noticed walls (plates XXIa and XXIb) and continuing with deepening about 2 m behind them. The aim of this trench was to examine the kind and condition of older layers and possible structures in the immediate palace context.

After cleaning the sections and the trench itself we recognized the following: 

a) Wall M 3 in area III-a-14 leading from north to the south is built of many unhewn stones, with an average size of about 0,2 x 0,3 x 0,3 m. The preserved part we uncovered is 1,50 m high. Some stones are missing, but probably these smaller stones were once framed with bigger stones. 

b) Wall M 4, belonging to area III-a-12, was cut by our trench, leading from north to south. Its preserved height is also 1, 50 m, its width about 0,9 m. The stones in this wall are bigger (about 0,5 x 0,3 x 0,5) and it is more carefully built than wall M 3.

The wall comes straight out of the southern section and turns into the northern section with a gentle bend to the northwest. Thus we can reconstruct a corner with a right angle here. In the west section - in the angle of the corner - part of a floor covering has been preserved, leading horizontally from one part of the wall to the other. 

c) The incline of the layers / the slope situation (see also plate XXIa

Because of the incline of the layers we can reconstruct a former slope of the tell in this area with a gradient of about 20-30 %. This is interesting because we can estimate how far the ancient hill reached, and how high these interesting layers are now probably covered with modern rubbish and earth masses of the robbers and of the Israeli army.

In the eastern third of the deep trench (III-a-14) we were able to detect at least 12 different layers very clearly (section to be published).

The upper layer (surface) still contained much modern rubbish down to a depth of 1,0 m. In the following layer there was nothing modern, the pottery was clearly Roman.

The following layer was the most significant because of its clear yellow/orange colour, with no pottery, no bones or inclusions of any kind.

Just above and below this one (plate XXI) we can distinguish 11 layers, including pottery from the LB-age down to the EB-age in a depth of about 2 meters.

The trench here proved that we have at least 4,0 m of mainly undisturbed "cultural" layers in the immediate surrounding of the palace.

The detailed pottery analysis is being done at the moment, but the frame of the chronological potential of the area has already been given by the above mentioned pottery.

Going to the east, the trench continues with wall M 1, the section between it and wall M 2 (III a-12, plate XXIc). This section (III-a-13) is partly disturbed, only from a depth of 2,0 m down to the ground the pottery can be dated into LB-age/MB-age. Running 4 m to the west from wall M 2, the trench is only 1 m deep here, because we stopped the poclain as we noticed wall M 2 and traced a change in the upper layers above and behind it. The pottery here is all Roman (plate XX).

3.3 Searching trenches 1 and 3 (plate IXXII
In addition to the above mentioned we checked the palace’s surrounding area in I-i-16 and III-a 16 (plate I) for the preservation of older structures found by the Hachmann-excavation. The upper layers just 2 meters under the recent surface (945 m²NN) show signs of modern destruction (rubble). A huge stone setting was uncovered, surrounded by modern garbage, it could not yet be identified as an ancient wall. Therefore it will be necessary to extend the trench to a greater extent, a task for the following campaigns.

In area I-i-13/14 (plate I) we noticed several stone settings in the section of a small hill (plate XXII). The section shows several plaster-floor layers stretching between two house walls. The whole structure has been covered by the stones of the so called "glacis". The context has been partly excavated down to the glacis and shows in connection with the Roman findings in III-a-12 of the deep trench and III-b/c-14/15 of the southwest-area of the tell, the horizon of the roman cultivation.

Further research has to be done in this context, which was only a kind of by-product of season 2002.

3.4 Stratigraphy / Chronology 
The stratigraphy and the pottery analysis show a clear picture of what we have to expect in the following campaigns. Considering the former slope (incline: 20-30%), the deep trench contains Roman pottery and structures in the upper undisturbed layers (upper west end of the deep trench III-a-12 and trench 3-I-i-13/14) down to LB, MB and EB-age pottery as shown in area III-a-14.

The walls discovered in trench 1 and trench 5 could, because of their depth, their size and their location, belong to the palace of the MB-age or even to one of its predecessors. Finding out more about this will be a desirable task for the following campaigns.

4. The Area south-west of the palace III-b/c-14/15 (Luitgard van Lengerich) 
plate Iplate XXIII - XXIX

4.1 Description of the building structures Area III-b/c-14-15 exposed mainly two building layers - the glacis, the top layer covering the area, and the so-called house IV, the first architectural structure discovered underneath the glacis.

In order to investigate the archaeological potential of the so far unexcavated area, we opened up several trenches, in a east-west and north-south direction (see sketch, plate XXX).

The first layer of earth, 20-30cm thick, contained a mixture of loam, sand, little stones and modern rubble.

The upper earth layer covered - over the whole area - the so-called "glacis", which so far has been discovered on the "Kuppe" (hill top), the area in the immediate neighbourhood of the palace (see plate XXII), and on the slope in the east.

The glacis itself had been built over the first building layer in this area, House IV. House IV was built of fieldstones as well as of hewn stones. So far 5 walls have been identified. They form parts of the house and the walls of rooms 1 to 5. Room 1 as well as room 5 still shows some stone slabs forming the floor. Between room 4 and room 5 the passage had also been covered with smoothed stone slabs.

Room 1 contained a tannur as well as a square installation, lined with stones. Fragments of several vessels where still laying in situ. A tannur had also been build into room 3, room 4 contained some fragments of iron-slack.

 4.2 Stratigraphy / Chronology 
So far the area shows two building layers, the glacis on top and house IV, covered by the glacis. The settlement, to which house IV belongs, can - according to the pottery - be put chronologically to house II and III on the eastern slope. It is probably slightly older, beginning during the Hellenistic times. The pottery differs from houses II and III in some samples - more "luxury" vessels and oil-lamps have been found in house IV (plates XXV and plate XXIX) than in the houses II and III.

4.3 Functions of the building (see plate XXIV
So far house IV seems to have been a rather prestigious living house, as the construction is more carefully done and the inventory more luxurious than in the other houses. 

4.4 The deep trench(plates XXVII and XXVIII
To get more information about chronology and stratigraphy of this part of the site a deep trench has been opened in III-b-14 (7m in the east-west, 3m in the north-south and 2,80m deep). The undisturbed context within this deep trench shows several stone structures, a burnt layer and lots of Roman pottery. The deep trench might be connected with the area just north of it, the so called palace area, where the deep trench shows the entire succession from Roman to early Bronze Age levels. 

V. Pottery-analysis / Preliminary results 

1. Area II-e-5, II-d-5 as well as II-d-4

2. Area II-e-6

3. Area II-e-7, II-e-8, II-f-8 as well as II-f-9 (Jana Pokrandt)
The following evaluation of pottery results, done during the exavation "Kamid el-Loz 2002" relates to the excavations done in the slope area. This area has been excavated by the trench- supervisors A. Collo (area II-e-5/ II-d-5) E. Wagner (II-e-7/ II-e-8/ II-f-8/ II-f-9) and J. Nieling (II-e-6).

It should be mentioned, that merely some selected examples were useful for a prelimary dating of the strata, so the final typology and dating can only adequately be done after the campaign. Therefore, these short notes should be regarded as prelimary notes and descriptions. 

1. Area II-e-5, II-d-5 as well as II-d-4 
During the excavation of A. Collo the attention was directed to the exploration of wall structures, installations, floor spaces and burial places. Consistently, a large sector had been opened here, which has hardly been examined in the depth.

The existence of Islamic pottery as well as Roman pottery in the uppermost layer is indisputable due to the close appearance of this pottery underneath the surface. A detailed clarification of this upper level is not yet possible (see A. Collo). Nevertheless, the existence of undecorated, common ware, storage vessels and storage jars on the one hand and fine, thin and decorated pottery on the other hand should be mentioned. 

2. Area II-e-6 
The attention of J. Nieling in this area concentrated mainly on the deep strata and less on the area clarification in which the wall structures, the installations, floor spaces and the various burial places and types of graves had to be cleared. In correspondence with J. Nieling’s report, I adopt his structure of the report to explain my observations relating to the pottery.

After the removal of the surface and irrelevant pottery, the "glacis" was uncovered, which was followed first by wall structures and the so-called "wine-processing-installation" according to J. Nieling (preliminary note !). Within this stratum mainly Roman pottery occurred, smoothed surfaces and middle fine to middle rough ware dominated, partly still mixed with fragments of Islamic pottery. Circa 1,20 m underneath the first wall structures, J. Nieling found graves with an east-west orientation. The findspots with pottery contents dated this stratum, for the time being, into the Roman period. The context contained more and more body shards, decorated with grooves in the middle fine to the middle rough ware (mainly ware XXXI), and some amphora fragments turned up. Burial places with the east-west- orientation were followed by north-south orientated graves as well as a sarcophagus (J. Nieling himself dates the sarcophagus to the end of the 2nd century / beginning of the 3rd century AD).

The pottery observation shows an increase in filigree and high-quality pieces, fragments of Terra Sigillata as well as Terra Negra in the context of the south-west north-east oriented graves (plate IV). A possible dating could be the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman period. Many new forms appeared that had not yet been discovered in the Roman contexts, perhaps a further hint to an earlier dating which has to be checked in detail.

Underneath all burial contexts a layer of red broken clay bricks ("Lehmziegelversturz") appeared. The pottery obviously changes within this context (e.g. fragments are often approx. 1cm thick, the ware is rough to middle rough. The inside is often of a dark colour, the outside a grey to red colour).

We discussed the material with Assad Seif, who spend a day with us in Kamid el-Loz. An increase in fragmentary cooking-pots as well as rough ware has been dated to the early Iron Age (ca. 900 B.C.).

Concluding, area II-e-6 establishes a settlement from the early Iron Age, the Roman period to the Islamic period (the last one being neglected a little bit during the campaign 2002). 

3. Area II-e-7, II-e-8, II-f-8 and II-f-9 
The task of E. Wagner was the clarification of the Roman and following strata with the help of deep trenches. These trenches have been laid out in area II-e-7 as well as in II-f-9. The excavations in areas II-e-8 and II-f-8 cleared roman building structures, the chronological position of these structures has been clarified by the pottery analysis.

At the beginning (in the upper layers), the deep trenches contained mostly Roman pottery with grooved designs. The ware can be classified as middle fine and increasingly comprises the repertoire of various common ware with a great amount of shards from storage jars. A pilgrim flask (plate XIVa) and other pottery fragments hint at an Iron Age / late Bronze Age transitional context. The pottery is getting rougher and less fine in its designs. Nevertheless, so called stripe-paintings in several coloured designs (mostly red to brown) seem to dominate and less pieces of applicated and grooved designs appear. An increase in cooking pots with rough calcit and sand inclusions, the colour varying from grey-red to nearly black, depending on the firing, was also used as a chronological indicator for the iron-age / late-bronze-age transitional period (according to Assad Seif).

 4. The south-western area of the tell III- b/c-14/15 
This area of the tell has been excavated for the first time this season.

In the top layer over the glacis a complete small vessel was discovered. The pottery discovered under the glacis consisted mainly of fragments from simple ware, storing jars and some cooking pots. A strikingly great amount of them are ware XXXI, XLIII or XLVIII. They occurred in almost any findspot, though all of the findspots represent a big variety on wares. Terra Sigillata was also found in many findspots. Especially pleasant was the discovery of a complete Terra Sigillata plate (plate XXIX), which was located in the glacis layer.

Fragments of three oil-lamps have also been discovered (see plate XXV). The fragment of a lid comes from the surface. Another oil lamp was found in room 2.

Fragments of Hellenistic pottery started showing up towards the end of the excavation. The base of a Campana (A?) plate decorated with palmets dating approximatly from the 3rd to the 4th century BC was discovered with the usual Roman pottery. Another piece of campana, together with the handle of a wine amphora which is also clearly Hellenistic, was discovered in the glacis area.

5. Area III-a-12/13/14/15 
Since the surface of the tell in the area of the deep trench has been very disturbed, a bulldozer and a poclain have been used to clean the area and start the deep trench. Some shards from this deep trench have already been dated and give an overview of the ware and forms of the area. In the east of the deep trench, just above the yellow stratum, a cooking-pot was identified, and could be dated to the late bronze age. Coming from just below the yellow layer, two rims and a second cooking pot were dated to the middle bronze age (plate XXI). Another cooking pot could be dated even more precisely to the middle bronze age II A. Two polished body shards have middle bronze age burnishings.

In area III-a-15 many fragments of simple ware, storage jars and a few cooking pots could be found. Some shards had a white slip, which occurs if salt water is put inside the clay (see "bilbil", plate XXI). Engraved decorations were also found. Remarkable are some chocolate on white painted fragments, which date to the late bronze age (1500 - 1200 BC)(plate XXI). It was also possible to date fragments of a Canaanite jar, which is also typical for the late bronze age and the fragment of a thin carinated bowl from the middle bronze age (2000 - 1500 BC).

The deep trench stretches over area III-a-14. Further stratified pottery appeared above the yellow stratum. Immediately above this stratum the handle and painted body shards of a "bilbil" could be retrieved. This is very interesting, as it is a Cypriot import dating from the late bronze age (Ruth Amiran, Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land, pl. 54)  (plate XXI).

In a second level above the yellow stratum more simple ware and a cooking pot were found. Again, there were fragments of the base of a Canaanite jar from the late Bronze Age, and a painted handle dating from the same period. But there were also fragments from a middle Bronze Age pot. Underneath the yellow layer some shards of a bowl which date back to early Bronze IV turned up. The base and burnishing of this bowl are typical for this time.

6. Area I-f-12/13/14 (Verena Janatsch) 
Unfortunately the surface of this area of the tell was also very disturbed, so the bulldozer and the poclain had to be used to remove large amounts of soil here as well before the excavation could begin. After this it was possible to discover several structures, which formed the following rooms:

Room 1
In room 1 an astonishingly great amount of fragments from very big storage jars could be found, most of them of ware I. A significant number of them was decorated with the, for the whole trench very common, fishbone decoration. A vessel found dates the to late Bronze Age. All pottery appeared to be for daily use, including one almost complete vessel of ware XXV.

Room 2
The pottery from room 2 was also for daily use. Notable are the great amount of shards of ware I, which is quite common in the area, and ware XXXIV. Ware LV also appeared in big quantities. Where decoration occurred, the usual fishbone and combed ware was found. In the lower layer of the filling of the room some painted shards were discovered. One rim of ware LV dates from the middle bronze age.

Room 3
Nothing exceptional was found in room 3. As in the majority of the findspots of this area, ware I dominated and a big variety of other shards could be found, some with the usual decoration.

Room 4
The same can be said about room 4. Many fragments from storage jars and vessels for everyday use were discovered, some combed or decorated with fishbone decoration.

 Room 5
The same pottery could be found in room 5. Apart from this in the upper part of the filling of the room, a misfired vessel could be retrieved near the surface. In the lower part of the filling a handle, which had been broken and was repaired with clay in ancient times, was found. Also two painted shards and a body shard with a potter mark were located in this layer. Most interesting perhaps is the discovery of the handle of a Canaanite jar, which makes it possible to date this layer to the late bronze age.

Room 6
Room 6 showed only the usual shards with some of the decoration common for this area.

Room 7
Like the preceding rooms, this room again contained the usual mix of shards, some of them decorated. But in the lower filling of the room an unbroken cooking pot was discovered in situ. It dates from the late Bronze Age (Anc. Pot., p. 137, plate 42). Fragments of other cooking pots were also found, among them a rim dating to the late bronze age, the handle of a Canaanite jar (also late Bronze) and some shards dating even from the early Bronze (to be analysed in detail).

Room 8
Room 8 revealed the same mixture of pottery as in the other rooms. There were also a few painted shards and fragments of at least one cooking pot. Interesting here is the discovering of fragments of a lamp dating from the bronze age, and some white shards, made of fine ware which could very easily date from the middle Bronze Age.

Room 9
As expected, room 9 contained the same, sometimes decorated, pottery. In the upper part of the filling of the room a cooking pot rim was found, which dates to the middle or late bronze age. In the lowest layer of the filling a body shard was discovered in which the head and part of the body of a bird is engraved. This shard dates to the late Bronze Age. There was also some chocolate on white painting dating between the middle and late Bronze Age, a rim dating to the middle Bronze Age and a handle dating also from the middle Bronze Age. A cooking pot with many calcite inclusions is typical for the late Bronze Age. Most interesting here was the discovery of fragments of a painted bicoloured jar. The decoration does not seem to be iron age, as it is not geometric enough, but rather looks like the chocolate on white decoration typical for the late bronze age.

The Street
The pottery found in the street mainly consisted of three wares, ware I, XXV and XXX. XX and XXXI also appeared quite often, though almost any type of ware so far discovered on the tell could be found there. There were also some cooking pot fragments and shards which were combed or decorated with fishbones. Many painted fragments were found, though most remarkable were the base of a pot which carries a potter mark and a handle which bears the impression of a seal. One rim of ware I could be dated to the Iron Age. The cooking pot whose fabric consists of calcite dated from the late Bronze Age.

The deep trench
Many interesting shards were found in the deep trench, e.g. the handle of a torpedo jar, a cylindrical jar dating from the 7th to 8th century BC (Hellenistic) which is one of the ancestors of the Roman amphorae. A shard with combed decoration which dates from the middle Bronze Age and the rim of a Canaanite jar from the late Bronze Age were retrieved too. Also some fragments from early Bronze Age vessels were discovered, like the base of a storage jar with the typical ridges, a base and some body shards. Because of its vertical burnishing with differentiations one shard could be dated to the early Bronze Age IV. (For details concerning the deep-trench an the pottery see the report of Lisa Kirsch and plates XVIIIcXVIIIdXVIIIeXVIIIfXVIIIg.)


We would like to express our sincere thanks to our collegue Assad Seif who was of great help when it came to the analysis and dating of the pottery found this season in Kamid el-Loz.

Jana Pokrandt, Verena Janatsch.

VI. Glass-Finds 
The glass finds of the season 2002 will again be analysed and published by Tania Zaven, M.A., (National Museum, Beirut, Lebanon).

VII. Outlook 
The season 2002 has been an unexpectedly rich one concerning above all the stratigraphical-chronological results. The slope area turned out to have been occupied all over by the Roman settlement, it was used as a living space as well as a cemetery in Roman times and later. Three deep trenches within the slope area delivered the proof of the far older age of settlement activities in this area. One of our main aims from the beginning in our research in Kamid el-Loz was to explore the settlement history as well as the settlement layouts of the periods on the site. The 2002 excavation already begins to change our picture about the Iron Age settlement in Kamid. The new results show the extension of this settlement from the west as far as the east-slope of the tell and probably its extensions further down to the fields just east of the slope (plate I). The interpretation of Kamid el-Loz as a small iron-age settlement with only little architecture has to be corrected. Further exploration of the Iron Age levels will now be part of the future research on the site. As documented above, we also touched a transitional Iron Age / late Bronze Age layer in this area. In addition to our limited knowledge of the late Bronze Age temple and palace region, we now begin to explore these regions where we expect the living areas of the town during these periods. The slope area therefore will be one of these areas where we follow up our main research aims, the reconstruction of the settlement-plans during the different periods of settlement activity in Kamid el-Loz.

New information about the layout and architectural picture of Kamid el-Loz during the late and middle Bronze Age is also coming to light in the temple area. Next to the temple building ground itself the 2002 season shows the kinds and functions of the surrounding buildings. The temple area is changing its "face" and our aim to analyse the functions and architectural layout of the temple surrounding is now already in full swing! (The correlation of the ground-plans 2002 to the ground-plans of the temple during late and middle Bronze Age will be done back in Germany)

The palace’s surrounding area has also been analysed in 2002 and primarily new chronological results confirm the potential of this part of the site for future excavations. As the deep trench shows, we have settlement activities there from the Roman period down to at least as early as EB IV - so far we have not touched virgin soil. With these results the 2002 research aims have fully been achieved also in this part of the tell. 2003 will start with opening the excavation area here above the trench size. Area III-a-15 shows a huge stone-wall construction which has been excavated in its first layers 2002. Since we are in the palace-area and already far underneath the known palace-structure new results are definitely coming up here, concerning structure and size as well as the age of the palace-buildings here. 

The Romans did settle in the eastern part of the tell, they did build houses in the so called palace area and above this context the Hellenistic-Roman settlement stretches further down to the south of the tell and presumably over the tell itself into the surrounding field-areas. As shown by house IV, its excellent wall-structure and the extraordinary pottery and small finds, we can expect different functions and different house types here than on the eastern slope. The deep section shows so far approx. 2,50m deep undisturbed settlement layers, so far "filled" with Roman pottery. That we can expect older, untouched settlement structures in this area show the results of the nearby palace deep trench (plate XXIII).

Kamid el-Loz, 12.9.2002


List of Plates  

Plate I

overview of the excavated areas of 2002

Plate II

Iron Age pottery, Cypriote style from season 2001, sarcophagus pit

Plate III

overview of the Roman (and younger) buildings on the slope area

Plate IV

map of the burial distribution on the slope area

Plate V

Roman oil lamp fragment from the area south-west of the palace; findspot 12,

Plate VI

fragment of a fibulae, slope area, findspot 8, below glacis layer, arrow, bone, slope area, findspot 13, above graves, underneath floor layer, stone fragment of a human head, slope area, findspot 221, soil

Plate VII

pottery from the slope area, Roman period, findspot 13 and findspot 12

Plate VIII

basalt mortar and grinding stone, basalt, slope area, findspot 8 limestone base, decorated with engraved parallel lines, slope area, findspot 223, room 13

Plate IX

walls of the Roman house III and its position in relation to house II, excavated 2001, slope area, II-e-8, II-f-8, II-f-9

Plate X

building structures, Iron Age, slope area, deep trench in II-e-6

Plate Xa

amphoriskos, FS II-e-6, Hellenistic, late 3rd / early 2nd century B.C.

Plate XI

building structures, Iron Age, slope area, deep trench in II-e-7

Plate XII

wall M 44, deep trench in the slope area, II-f-9

Plate XIII

painted vessel, slope area, findspot 121, late Bronze / Iron age

Plate XIV

late Bronze Age decorated vessel, slope area, II-f-9, findspot 159, wall M 44

Plate XIVa

pilgrim flask, iron-age, slope area, findspot 121, underneath grave, lb-Iron age

Plate XV

overview "temple-area", pictures taken from east to west

Plate XVI

fragment of painted globular vessel, fine ware, smoothed surface, brown-red decoration of parallel stripes, findspot 626, soil on top of walls M 3 and M8, temple area, middle Bronze Age (?)

Plate XVII

Schale, findspot 613, west of wall M 2, temple-area, globular carinated vessel, cooking-pot ware, middle / late-bronze-age, findspot 614, context wall M 7


painted fragment, reddish-black geometric decoration, findspot 608, the street in the temple area, filled with pottery fragments, bones with butcher marks, stones, ash and sand.

Plate XVIIIa

walls, rooms and streets in the temple-area, late to middle Bronze Age context

Plate XVIIIb

inventory; details in I-f-14

Plate XVIIIc

the deep section in area I-f-12, the temple area

Plate XVIIId

pottery from the deep-section in I-f-12, context 2-3: middle Bronze Age

Plate XVIIIe

pottery from the deep-section in I-f-12, context 3-4: middle Bronze Age / EB IV

Plate XVIIIf

pottery of the the deep section in I-f-12, context deep-trench 5-6: EB IV

Plate XVIIIg

pottery of the the deep section in I-f-12, context deep-trench 5-6: EB IV- photographs

Plate XIX

overview "palace-area", pictures taken from east to west

Plate XX

west-section of the deep trench in III-a-12, the palace-area and the Hellenistic- Roman pottery of this part

Plate XXI

eastern part of the deep trench in III-a-12-14, the palace-area; pottery from EBIV, MB and LB context; LB: Cypriote bilbil, whitish decoration on reddish-grey background; chocolate-on-white; decorated handle MB: handle and rim, reddish clay, smoothed surface outside; EB IV: base fragment, outer side reddish and burnished / smoothed in vertical parallel stripes

Plate XXIa

III-a-12, stone walls

Plate XXIb

wall M 4

Plate XXIc

walls M 1 and M 2

Plate XXII

section of a Roman building, walls and floor layer (yellow on the section-sketch), "glacis-stones" covering the structure; the pottery comparable to the material from houses II and III, perhaps house IV


overview over the palace area, deep trench and the Roman area of house IV

Plate XXIV

house IV, Hellenistic-Roman period

Plate XXV

Hellenistic (?) and Roman oil-lamp fragments from findspots 412 and 414 underneath glacis

Plate XXVI

vessel, Roman, area south-west of the palace, III-b-14, deep trench.


sections of deep trench in area III-b-14, Hellenistic-Roman layer


pottery from deep-trench in area III-b-14, Hellenistic-Roman

Plate XXIX

pottery from area I-f-12. terra sigillata bowl, findspot 421, room 1 of house IV

Plate XXX

overview temple area I-f-12-14


overview "palace-area", III-a-15 and Roman settlement III-b/c-14/15



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